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Capturing leads is easy; qualifying and nurturing them until they turn into buyers is hard.
Consider this: in the B2B software industry, the conversion rate from visitor to lead is 7%, but from visitor to close is a measly 0.68%.
The lead qualification, nurturing and closing process depends on customer insight. Simply put, the more you know about your leads, the better you can serve them.
And to get this customer insight, you’ll have to ask a lot of questions.
By carefully listening to what your prospects have to say - and offering insight and comments when appropriate - you can not only learn more about your prospects, but also build rapport.
In this post, I’ll share 80+ open-ended questions you can ask for every stage of the buying cycle, from qualification to closing.
In sales terminology, a question can be either open-ended or closed-ended.
An open-ended question is designed for discovery. A closed-ended question, on the other hand, is designed to get precise answers.
Let’s learn more about these two question types, and when to use them.
An open-ended sales question is usually a probing question aimed at getting a prospect to talk more about his business, his problems, and his wants.
As you might expect from the name itself, these questions are “open”, that is, they don’t have any specific answers. You’ll use them to initiate a discussion and to learn more about a prospect, especially during the nurturing and closing stages.
For instance, here’s an open-ended question:
“What do you think will be your biggest challenge this year?”
Unless a prospect is particularly reticent, it’s hard to give a one-word answer to this question.
Compare that with this question:
“Is there a specific challenge that is holding back your business?”
A prospect can easily answer this with a yes/no. By focusing on a specific problem, it discourages prospects from talking about their businesses.
In fact, there’s a simple way to differentiate between an open-ended and a closed-ended question: the former tend to start with words like “what”, “why”, and “how”.
Open-ended questions essentially do three things:
Since open-ended questions lead to long discussions, they are poor tools for getting specific answers from leads.
For instance, if you want to figure out whether a business is large enough for your solution, you don’t want to ask what its biggest challenges are; you want to ask - “how many people work with you?”
While you’ll still want to use some open-ended questions during lead qualification, they’re best employed for nurturing and eventually, closing leads.
Closed-ended questions, as you might have guessed, are the opposite of open-ended questions.
The face you’re probably making right now….
That is, they are designed to get short, specific answers, not initiate long discussions.
For example, “Which option would you like to start with?” is a close-ended question. A prospect can answer it with a single word.
Closed-ended questions typically start with a verb like “are”, “is”, “did”, etc. Like:
Think of any question that can be answered with a yes/no - you can classify it as a closed-ended question.
Closed-ended questions are valuable for getting quick, exact answers to questions. They are usually used to:
You’ll use closed-ended questions throughout the sales process - to qualify leads by collecting hard data and to move the sales process forward in later stages.
Before we jump off to the next section, there’s something I need to point out: a lot of open-ended questions are actually closed-ended questions in disguise.
You might even call them “false” open questions.
For instance, think of a question like “Are there any particular issues you’d want me to address?”. On paper, this sounds like an open-ended question. You are asking the prospect about his problems and what you can do to solve them.
However, a client can easily answer this question with a yes/no. The question is framed in such a way that it doesn’t encourage discussion. Even if the prospect wants to talk more, the “is there?” part of the question makes it hard to give anything other than a yes/no answer.
Instead, if you frame the question like this - “What are some specific issues you’d want me to address?” - you make it hard for prospects to give a yes/no response.
So think of this before you pop an open-ended question. It doesn’t matter how broad the question is, if it can be answered with a yes/no, it is actually a closed-ended question.
Open-ended questions are a staple of any sales process, but it’s easy to mess them up by being robotic, impatient or inattentive.
Here are some things you must absolutely avoid when asking open-ended, probing sales questions:
I’m sure you’ve been on the opposite end of a poor sales pitch that felt more like an interrogation. The salesperson probably asked far too many questions that probed a little too much, too fast into your business, and your life.
That’s you; when you’re interrogating prospects
This is something you must avoid at all costs.
Although open-ended questions are designed to probe a prospect, they need to be used judiciously. Follow up far too many such questions back to back and your prospect might just feel like they are being interrogated.
This can actually have the opposite effect; prospects who feel they are being interrogated are more reluctant to talk.
Instead, pace out your questions. Ask an open-ended question, then follow it up with a closed-ended question, an anecdote or something completely unrelated.
The more you can help the prospect relax, the more they’ll be willing to talk.
The surest sign of an amateur salesperson is if they run through a list of questions one-by-one without adding anything to the conversation.
When this happens, the prospect might just feel that they are being subject to a phone survey by an automated caller, not a real person.
I know it's you dog
Remember: an open-ended sales question is meant to start a discussion. It’s a dialog, not a monolog. For every answer you get, add something of your own - some personal insight or anecdote that makes the prospect feel at ease.
While we’ll share a whole bunch of open-ended questions later in this article, don’t just ask them one-by-one.
Instead, use them to lead conversations.
Here’s another sign of an amateur - for every answer they get, they respond with an overly enthusiastic “great!” before jumping off to the next question.
Variations of “great!” include “awesome!”, “that’s amazing!”, and “oh wow!” - all said with the same degree of faux enthusiasm.
Most B2B decision makers have spoken to dozens of salespeople. They can smell fake enthusiasm before you even finish your first syllable. They can tell that “great!” in response to an answer is an empty word. It doesn’t mean anything; it’s just meant to kick the talk to the next question.
Instead, listen intently and offer a genuine response to a prospect’s answers. It doesn’t have to be long; a quick two-sentence insight works well enough.
As long as you can avoid the “great!” response (and variations thereof), you’re good.
Sometimes, it can be tempting to pop a question and answer it yourself based on what you already know about similar prospects.
For instance, you might ask - “What are some challenges you hope to overcome this year?” - and add something about how “most of our customers go through these X challenges”.
This hampers discovery. If the prospect wanted to talk about Y, but heard you mention X, they might give you a different answer than what they originally intended.
Refrain from adding any specific suggestions to a question. Instead, let the prospect arrive at an answer himself.
Salespeople who are in a hurry to meet their activity goals for the day often make this mistake - they ask a question, then jump to another one before the prospect has even had time to answer properly.
You can see why this can backfire easily. Interrupting a prospect when he is about to share some insight can actually hurt rapport and discovery.
Also, understand that prospects don’t always answer a question in one go. In a free-wheeling discussion, they might jump back to a previous question if they find something pertinent.
If this happens, interrupting them to bring their focus back to the present question can be counter-productive. After all, your objective is to learn more about the prospect; what order this insight comes in is immaterial.
As any salesperson worth his bonus will tell you, much of sales is simply listening to your prospects.
This doesn’t simply mean hearing words; it means actively listening to your prospects.
Active listening is when you take what a prospect says, understand it, and contribute something to the discussion which causes the prospect to talk more.
Say, if a prospect says that they had a problem with their servers last month, you might add - “that’s interesting - one of our customers faced something similar with their hosting provider a couple of months ago” - to show that you are engaging with what they have to say.
This is one of the core tenets of selling, and a critical component of any probing question. Not listening will seriously undermine the impact of your open-ended questions.
If a prospect says they have a problem, it’s natural to jump in and offer a solution. That’s what salespeople are for, after all.
Wrong. While your ultimate goal is to solve the customer’s problems, the open-ended question is meant for discovery. Your aim here is to learn as much as you can about the customer’s problems. Offering a solution at this stage will invariably lead to poor results since you don’t know the problem completely.
Not to mention, the open-ended question phase is usually handled by SDRs whose responsibility is to develop a prospect for closing.
So resist the urge to offer a solution when you first hear about a problem. Instead, prod them to talk more about it so you can develop a more fitting solution.
That takes care of the DON’Ts of asking open-ended questions.
What about the DOs?
Let’s look at a few of these below:
Think of how a skilled talk show host interviews his guests. He doesn’t try to explain or interpret the guest’s answers for his audience. Instead, he might share an anecdote or ask another question to get the guest to talk more. The guest explains the answer himself; the host only acts as a conduit to elicit answers.
Adopt the same mentality when you’re asking open-ended questions to your prospects. Don’t try to explain or interpret the answers you get - that part comes later. Instead, probe further and get the prospect to give even more details.
It’s a good idea to create a framework where you always have a follow-up question or response that gets the prospect to talk further.
For instance, you might have these three questions in a set:
The broad -> narrow framework works in most settings. It avoids interpretation and gets prospects to talk more.
Good salespeople tend to be good listeners, and good listeners almost always tend to be curious.
Curiosity gets prospects to talk more about their business and its issues. It also builds rapport; the more prospects can talk about their problems, the more likely they are to trust you.
Keep in mind that curiosity must be genuine (or at least appear so). If you’re only “curious” about the prospect’s business as it relates to your product, you aren’t really curious; you’re just pushing for a sale.
Prospects can see through this very quickly.
They can see right through you
This is why you must strive to show a genuine interest in the prospect and his business, even if it doesn’t directly relate to your product.
For instance, if you sell email marketing and the prospect starts talking about the shipping issues at his eCommerce business, don’t drag the conversation back to email; ask more about their shipping issues instead.
This might not lead the conversation directly towards a sale, but it will do a lot to build rapport and increase your trustworthiness.
Personalization is one of the obvious truths of sales, yet so many people seem to miss it. You can’t really hope to understand your prospects if you ask them generic questions pulled from a template.
Every question you ask must be personalized to:
For instance, if you’ve already asked the prospect about a problem in your last conversation, don’t ask him the same question again.
People new to sales think that great salespeople sell more because they know how to talk well.
The truth is that great salespeople sell more because they know when to be silent.
“Strategic silence” is when you intentionally keep quiet to get a prospect to reveal something or make a move.
For instance, if a prospect is talking about his business and stops mid-conversation, staying silent can actually get him to talk more.
It’ll be worth it; I promise
Knowing when to stay silent and when to speak is usually a combination of intuition and experience. But in case you’re not sure, it’s always better to err on the side of silence during lulls in the conversation.
You now know what open-ended sales questions are and when to use them.
As a start, try asking some of the questions below in different stages of the buying cycle:
Ask these questions if you want to know the prospect’s buying history and habits:
These questions are great for building rapport and getting the prospect to talk more.
Aspirations are what your prospects want. Afflictions are the problems that stop them from getting there.
What would be the potential impact of your solution on the prospect’s business?
Getting an answer to this question can help you understand how important your solution is to the prospect. It can also help you price your solution better.
Here are a few questions to figure this out:
The idea behind these questions is to get your prospects to think about your solution and how it can improve their lives. By getting them to imagine this “new reality”, you reduce their resistance to the sale.
Ask these questions if you want the prospect to clarify or expand on an answer:
The purpose of these questions is to determine specific objections to your proposal so you can mitigate them.
Try asking these:
These are pretty self-explanatory - ask these questions to figure out key information about your prospects, such as their budgets, purchase process, etc.
Is the prospect a good candidate for your solution? Should you push the lead further down the funnel or put it on hold for the moment?
Ask these questions to find out:
The most important part of the sales process - closing. Ask these questions when you’re trying to win a deal:
How well you know your prospects will have a big impact on the success of your sales process. And to know your prospects better, you have to ask them probing questions.
In sales, these are called “open-ended questions”. Such questions are designed to get a prospect to talk more about his business and his problems.
Asking the right questions at the right time can build rapport, increase trustworthiness and reduce resistance. You’ll also learn much more about your prospects which can help you create better solutions.
Start by using some of the questions shared above in your sales process. Gauge the response and fine-tune accordingly.